Just How HOT Are My Chiles?

temperature  

Prof. Wilber L. Scoville

Professor
Wilber L. Scoville

In 1912 a chemists by the name of Wilbur Scoville, working for the Parke-Davis pharmaceutical company, developed a method to measure the heat level of chile peppers. The test is named after him, the "Scoville Organoleptic Test". It is a subjective dilution-taste procedure. In the original test, Wilbur blended pure ground Chiles with sugar-water and a panel of "testers" then sipped the solution, in increasingly diluted concentrations, until they reached the point that the liquid no longer burned their mouths. A number was then assigned to each chile pepper based on how much it needed to be diluted before they could no longer taste (feel) the heat.

"1,000,000 drops of water is rated at only 1.5 Scoville Units"

The pungency (or heat factor) of chile peppers is measured in multiples of 100 units. The sweet bell peppers at zero Scoville units to the mighty Naga Jolokia (Ghost Pepper) at over 1,000,000 Scoville units! One part of chile "heat" per 1,000,000 drops of water is rated at only 1.5 Scoville Units. The substance that makes a chile so hot is called Capsaicin (cap-say-ah-sin).

Pure Capsaicin rates between 15,000,000 and 16,000,000 Scoville Units! Today more scientific and accurate methods like Electrochemistry and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) are used to determine capsaicin levels. In honor of Dr. Wilbur the unit of measure is still named Scoville.

Below is a list of Chile peppers and their Scoville Heat Units. Due to variations in growing conditions, soil and weather, peppers tend to vary between the lower and upper levels listed, but can go beyond them.

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Scoville Heat Units

Chile Pepper Heat Range
  All Sweet Bells
0
  Aconcagua
0
  Aji Chuncho
0
  Aladdin
0
  Branco Diamante
0
  Carliston
0
  Carmagnola Rosso
0
  Corno Verde
0
  Corona
0
  Cuneo Giallo
0
  Diamond White
0
  Dove
0
  Early Sunsation
0
  Etham
0
  Figaro
0
  Filfil Darah
0
  Fushimi
0
  Gigante
0
  Greygo
0
  Hershey
0
  Hungarian Wax
0
  Islander
0
  Jimmy Nardello
0
  Jingle Bells
0
  Jupiter
0
  Kaala
0
  Kandil
0
  Marconi Purple
0
  NuMex Conquistador
0
  Orage Sun
0
  Pimento
0
  Purple Beauty
0
  Quadrato D'Asti
0
  Sweet Banana
0
  Tangerine
0
  Hot Navajo
50 ~ 150
  Paprika-Super Red
50 ~ 200
Buy Seeds  Hot Cherry
50 ~ 500
  Avalon Button
100 ~ 500
  Babura Zelena
100 ~ 500
  Baldi
100 ~ 500
  Cachucha
100 ~ 500
  Cambuci
100 ~ 500
  Catarina
100 ~ 500
  Chilhuacle
100 ~ 500
  Corbaci
100 ~ 500
  Criollo
100 ~ 500
  Feher Ozon Paprika
100 ~ 500
  Frutka
100 ~ 500
  Georgescu Chocolate
100 ~ 500
  Guajilla de Zihutenejo
100 ~ 500
  Karlo
100 ~ 500
  Keystone Giant
100 ~ 500
  NuMex Sunburst
100 ~ 500
  Pepperoncini
100 ~ 500
  NuMex Eclipse
300 ~ 500
  Sonora
300 ~ 600
  Holy Mole
400 ~ 700
  NuMex Suave Orange
500 ~ 850
  NuMex Suave Red
500 ~ 850
  El-Paso
500 ~ 700
  Santa Fe Grande
500 ~ 750
  Cubanelle
300 ~ 1,000
  Agua Blanca
500 ~ 1,000
  NuMex R Naky
500 ~ 1,000
  Ametista
500 ~ 1,000
  Beaver Dam
500 ~ 1,000
  Bedgi
500 ~ 1,000
  Biquinho
500 ~ 1,000
  Brinco de Princesa
500 ~ 1,000
  Calistan
500 ~ 1,000
  Escabeche
500 ~ 1,000
  Gana Redonda
500 ~ 1,000
  NuMex Sunflare
500 ~ 1,000
  NuMex Sunglo
500 ~ 1,000
  NuMex Sunrise
500 ~ 1,000
  NuMex Twilight
800 ~ 1,000
  Peppadew
900 ~ 1,200
  Romanian Hot
800 ~ 1,400
  Georgia Flame
1,000 ~ 1,500
  Achar
1,000 ~ 1,500
  Aji Panca
1,000 ~ 1,500
  Almapaprika
1,000 ~ 1,500
  Dedo de Moca
1,000 ~ 1,500
  Mulato Isleño
1,000 ~ 1,500
  TAM Mild Jalapeno
1,000 ~ 1,500
  Poblano
500 ~ 2,000
  Espanola
1,000 ~ 2,000
  Ancho
1,000 ~ 2,000
  Mulato
1,000 ~ 2,000
  Pasilla
1,000 ~ 2,000
  NuMex Española
1,500 ~ 2,000
  Anaheim
500 ~ 2,500
  Sandia
500 ~ 2,500
  Cascabel
1,000 ~ 2,500
  Poinsettia
1,300 ~ 2,500
  Aji Andina
1,000 ~ 2,500
  Aji Benito
1,000 ~ 2,500
  Alcalde
1,300 ~ 2,500
  Ammazzo
1,300 ~ 2,500
  Calabria
1,300 ~ 2,500
  NuMex Big Jim
1,500 ~ 2,500
  Rocotillo
1,500 ~ 2,500
Buy Seeds  Peter
1,500 ~ 2,500
  Pulla
700 ~ 3,000
  Puya
900 ~ 3,000
  Merah
2,000 ~ 3,200
  NuMex Joe E. Parker
1,500 ~ 3,500
  Espelette
1,200 ~ 4,000
  Cascabella
1,500 ~ 4,000
  San Ardo
1,500 ~ 4,000
  Big Jim Heritage
2,000 ~ 4,000
  Brazilian Starfish
2,000 ~ 4,000
  Espanola Improved
2,000 ~ 4,000
  Dhamraj
3,500 ~ 4,300
  Caloro
1,000 ~ 5,000
  Cyklon
1,000 ~ 5,000
  Nosegay
1,000 ~ 5,000
  NuMex Centennial
1,000 ~ 5,000
  Pimientos de Padrón
1,000 ~ 5,000
  Bulgarian Carrot
2,000 ~ 5,000
  NuMex Primavera
2,000 ~ 5,000
  Ubatuba Cambuci
2,000 ~ 5,000
  Atomic Heart
2,500 ~ 5,000
  Azr
2,500 ~ 5,000
  Baccio di Satana
2,500 ~ 5,000
  Bermuda
2,500 ~ 5,000
  Bouquet
2,500 ~ 5,000
  Cenoura Búlgara
2,500 ~ 5,000
  Cereja
2,500 ~ 5,000
  Chilaca
2,500 ~ 5,000
  Chilcostle
2,500 ~ 5,000
  Chile de Cuscutlan
2,500 ~ 5,000
  Chintexle
2,500 ~ 5,000
  Cochabamba
2,500 ~ 5,000
  Cochiti
2,500 ~ 5,000
  Costeño
2,500 ~ 5,000
  Costeño Amarillo
2,500 ~ 5,000
  Dhanraj
2,500 ~ 5,000
  Equador Roxa
2,500 ~ 5,000
  Floral Gem
2,500 ~ 5,000
  Fogo Explosivo
2,500 ~ 5,000
  Fresno Supreme
2,500 ~ 5,000
  Goan
2,500 ~ 5,000
  Golden Nugget
2,500 ~ 5,000
  Guajillo
2,500 ~ 5,000
  Gulbarga
2,500 ~ 5,000
  Guntur
2,500 ~ 5,000
  Hari Mirch
2,500 ~ 5,000
  Hidalgo
2,500 ~ 5,000
  Huachinango
2,500 ~ 5,000
  Huasteco
2,500 ~ 5,000
  Huatulco Puntado
2,500 ~ 5,000
  Inca
2,500 ~ 5,000
  Inchanga
2,500 ~ 5,000
  Isleta
2,500 ~ 5,000
  Jemes
2,500 ~ 5,000
  Kalia
2,500 ~ 5,000
  Kerinting
2,500 ~ 5,000
  Kori Sitakame
2,500 ~ 5,000
  Mirasol
2,500 ~ 5,000
  NuMex Rio Grande
2,500 ~ 5,000
  Volcano
2,500 ~ 5,000
  Goat Horn
3,000 ~ 5,000
  NM 6-4 Heritage
3,000 ~ 5,000
  Chimayo
4,000 ~ 6,000
  Hatch Green
5,000 ~ 6,000
  Barker's Hot
5,00 ~ 7,000
Chile Powder  Smokes Pepper Pods  Chipotle
5,000 ~ 8,000
  Fresno
2,500 ~ 8,500
  Long Thick Cayenne
6,000 ~ 8,500
  Jalapeño
2,500 ~ 8,000
  Pretty Purple
4,000 ~ 8,000
  Purple Tiger 'Trifetti'
4,000 ~ 9,000
  Hot Wax
5,000 ~ 9,000
  Sandia Hot
7,000 ~ 9,000
  Earbob
3,000 ~ 10,000
  Hungarian Hot Wax
5,000 ~ 10,000
  NuMex Sandia
5,000 ~ 10,000
  Kung Pao
8,000 ~ 10,000
  Lumbre Hot
9,000 ~ 10,000
  Chili Maya
8,000 ~ 11,000
  Abbraccio
5,000 ~ 15,000
  Afegã Curta
5,000 ~ 15,000
  Aji Cobincho
5,000 ~ 15,000
  Balãozinho
5,000 ~ 15,000
  Bishop's Crown
5,000 ~ 15,000
  Cseresznye Paprika
5,000 ~ 15,000
  Dutch Red
5,000 ~ 15,000
  Estrela-do-Mar
5,000 ~ 15,000
  Israeli Hot
5,000 ~ 15,000
  Jarales
5,000 ~ 15,000
  Aji Bento
9,000 ~ 15,500
  Hidalgo
6,000 ~ 17,000
  Aji Escabeche
12,000 ~ 17,000
  Serrano
8,000 ~ 22,000
  Tears Of Fire
19,000 ~ 23,600
  Peruvian Purple
15,000 ~ 25,000
  Tian Ying
18,000 ~ 25,000
  Gambia
18,000 ~ 26,500
Buy Seeds  Stumpy
10,000 ~ 27,000
Buy Seeds  Bolivian Rainbow
10,000 ~ 28,000
  Punjab
21,000 ~ 29,500
  Cabai Burong
5,000 ~ 30,000
  Cabai Merah Besar
5,000 ~ 30,000
  Fish Pepper
5,000 ~ 30,000
  Holiday Cheer
5,000 ~ 30,000
  Hot Portugal
5,000 ~ 30,000
  Inca Red Drop
5,000 ~ 30,000
  New Delhi Long
5,000 ~ 30,000
  Onza Red
5,000 ~ 30,000
  Onza Yellow
5,000 ~ 30,000
  Orozco
5,000 ~ 30,000
  Royal Black
5,000 ~ 30,000
  Black Prince
10,000 ~ 30,000
  Takanotsume
10,000 ~ 30,000
  Manzano
12,000 ~ 30,000
  Shipkas
12,000 ~ 30,000
  Abchazskij Ostruyi
15,000 ~ 30,000
  Afega Longa
15,000 ~ 30,000
  Aji Carmine
15,000 ~ 30,000
  Aji Criolla Sella
15,000 ~ 30,000
  Assam
15,000 ~ 30,000
  Ata Barukono
15,000 ~ 30,000
  Australian Latern
15,000 ~ 30,000
  Berbere
15,000 ~ 30,000
  Beslers Cherry
15,000 ~ 30,000
  Bode Amarela
15,000 ~ 30,000
  Bombilla Amarilla
15,000 ~ 30,000
  Bonanza Brasileira
15,000 ~ 30,000
  Bubba
15,000 ~ 30,000
  Caballero
15,000 ~ 30,000
  Chao Tian Jiao
15,000 ~ 30,000
  Cheyenne
15,000 ~ 30,000
  Chi Chien
15,000 ~ 30,000
  Chile Inayague
15,000 ~ 30,000
  Chile Maya
15,000 ~ 30,000
  Chile Pepe
15,000 ~ 30,000
  Chilito de Simojovel
15,000 ~ 30,000
  Chinchi Uchu
15,000 ~ 30,000
  Chivato
15,000 ~ 30,000
Buy Seeds  Chile Powder  De Arbol
15,000 ~ 30,000
  Dedo de Bahamas
15,000 ~ 30,000
  Erva de Bode
15,000 ~ 30,000
  Gâmbia Vermelha
15,000 ~ 30,000
  Golden Heat
15,000 ~ 30,000
  Hahony Kacho
15,000 ~ 30,000
  Havaiana
15,000 ~ 30,000
  Inca Glow
15,000 ~ 30,000
  Inca Laranja
15,000 ~ 30,000
  Kim Chi
15,000 ~ 30,000
  NuMex Barker's Hot
15,000 ~ 30,000
  Pimenta de Bode
15,000 ~ 30,000
  Serrano Tampiqueño
15,000 ~ 30,000
  Black Pearl
20,000 ~ 30,000
  Chupetinho
20,000 ~ 30,000
  Little Elf
20,000 ~ 30,000
  Jwala
20,000 ~ 30,000
  Dundicut
20,000 ~ 40,000
  Beni Highland
31,500 ~ 42,600
  Jaloro
30,000 ~ 50,000
Buy Seeds  Aji
30,000 ~ 50,000
  NuMex Luci Fairy
30,000 ~ 50,000
  Aci Sivri
30,000 ~ 50,000
  Akabare
30,000 ~ 50,000
  Aurora
30,000 ~ 50,000
  Bonney
30,000 ~ 50,000
  Jaloro
30,000 ~ 50,000
Buy Seeds  Aji
30,000 ~ 50,000
  Coban
30,000 ~ 50,000
  Cumari
30,000 ~ 50,000
  Demre
30,000 ~ 50,000
  Desi Teekhi
30,000 ~ 50,000
  Dhani
30,000 ~ 50,000
  Dieng Plateau
30,000 ~ 50,000
  Diente de Perro
30,000 ~ 50,000
  Dong Xuan
30,000 ~ 50,000
  Dunso
30,000 ~ 50,000
  Etna
30,000 ~ 50,000
  Faria
30,000 ~ 50,000
  Guarani
30,000 ~ 50,000
  Hermosillo
30,000 ~ 50,000
  DKurnool
30,000 ~ 50,000
  Maras Biber
30,000 ~ 50,000
  Purple Prince
30,000 ~ 50,000
  Lemon Drop
30,000 ~ 50,000
  Tabasco
30,000 ~ 50,000
  Cayenne
30,000 ~ 50,000
  Fiji
30,000 ~ 50,000
  Filius Blue
30,000 ~ 50,000
  Pusa Jwala
30,000 ~ 50,000
  Urfa Biber
30,000 ~ 50,000
  Santaka
40,000 ~ 50,000
  NuMex Piñata
40,000 ~ 50,000
  Super Chile
40,000 ~ 50,000
  African Pequin
40,000 ~ 57,000
  Piquin
40,000 ~ 58,000
  Prik Kee Noo
50,000 ~ 70,000
  Tien Tsin
50,000 ~ 70,000
  NuMex XX Hot
60,000 ~ 70,000
  Yatsafusa
50,000 ~ 75,000
  Red Amazon
55,000 ~ 75,000
  Haimen
70,000 ~ 80,000
  Suryaki Cluster
65,000 ~ 81,400
Buy Seeds  Chiltecpin
60,000 ~ 85,000
  Ring of Fire
70,000 ~ 85,000
  Cili Goronong
50,000 ~ 100,000
  Aji Charapa
50,000 ~ 100,000
Buy Seeds  Thai
50,000 ~ 100,000
  Diablo Grande
60,000 ~ 100,000
  Malagueta
60,000 ~ 100,000
  Charleston
70,000 ~ 100,000
  Pico de Pajaro
70,000 ~ 100,000
  Merah
85,000 ~ 100,000
  Aji Cito
85,000 ~ 108,000
  Bahamian
95,000 ~ 110,000
  Tabiche
85,000 ~ 115,000
  Bahamian
95,000 ~ 110,000
  Assam
75,000 ~ 121,000
  Carolina Cayenne
100,000 ~ 125,000
  Thai Dragon
75,000 ~ 140,000
  Limo Blanco
100,000 ~ 150,000
  Cajamarca
125,000 ~ 150,000
  Kumataka
125,000 ~ 150,000
  Sparkler
100,000 ~ 160,000
  Rooster Spur
120,000 ~ 170,000
  Ecuador Hot
145,000 ~ 186,000
  Bahamian
125,000 ~ 300,000
  Jamaican Hot
100,000 ~ 200,000
  Birds Eye
100,000 ~ 225,000
  Maori
80,000 ~ 240,000
  Quintisho
100,000 ~ 240,000
  Pimenta de Neyde
100,000 ~ 250,000
  Rocoto / Manzano
125,000 ~ 250,000
  Madame Jeanette
175,000 ~ 250,000
Buy Seeds  Tepin (Wild)
100,000 ~ 265,000
Buy Seeds  Texas Chiltepin
100,000 ~ 265,000
  Datil
100,000 ~ 300,000
  Zimbabwe Bird
180,000 ~ 300,000
Buy Seeds  Buy Chile Powder  Devil Tongue
125,000 ~ 325,000
Buy Seeds  Fatalii
125,000 ~ 325,000
  White Habanero
130,000 ~ 325,000
  Orange Habanero
150,000 ~ 325,000
  Scotch Bonnet
90,000 ~ 325,000
  TigrePaw-NR
265,000 ~ 348,000
  Adjuma
150,000 ~ 350,000
  Caribbean Red
120,000 ~ 400,000
Buy Seeds  Chile Powder  Choclate Habanero
325,000 ~ 425,000
  Aribibi Gusano
300,000 ~ 470,000
  Aji Chombo
100,000 ~ 500,000
  Pingo de Ouro
100,000 ~ 500,000
Chile Powder  Chile Powder  Pepper Pods  Red Savina Habanero
350,000 ~ 575,000
  Habanaga
500,000 ~ 800,000
  Nagabon
750,000 ~ 800,000
  Raja Mirch
800,000 ~ 900,000
  Dorset Naga
800,000 ~ 970,000
  Naga Morich
770,000 ~ 1,034,910
  Infinity
800,000 ~ 1,067,286
  Naga Gibralta
900,000 ~ 1,086,844
  Naga Viper
800,000 ~ 1,382,118
Buy Trinidad Scorpion Seeds  Trinidad Scorpion
1,029,000 ~ 1,390,000
Buy Seeds  Chile Powder  Pepper Pods  Naga Jolokia "Ghost Pepper"
1,020,000 ~ 1,578,000
  Choclate 7 Pot
1,169,000 ~ 1,850,000
  Buy Seeds  Moruga Scorpion 1,200,000 ~ 2,009,231
  Carolina Reaper
1,200,000 ~ 2,100,000
Common Pepper Spray 2-3,000,000
Police Grade Spray 5,300,000
Homodihydrocapsaicin 8,600,000
Nordihydrocapsaicin 9,100,000
Pure Capsaicin 15-16,000,000

Read About: World's Hottest Pepper

 

A Little Chile Chemistry For
The Visiting Rocket Scientist

Capsaicin molecule

Chiles are members of the Capsicum family. The heat range is diverse, ranging from very mild to extremely wild. The particular class of substances that determine their disposition is known, by those who study such things, as Capsaicinoids. The two most common component of this class are Capsaicin and Di-Hydrocapsaicin they looks something like this.

Capsaicin
            H3CO
              \____       O            CH3
              /    \      |            |
          HO-<      >-C-N-C-(CH2)4-C=C-C-CH3
              \____/  | |          | | |
                     H2 H          H H H
   

Di-Hydrocapsaicin
             H3CO
               \____       O        CH3
               /    \      |        |
           HO-<      >-C-N-C-(CH2)6-C-CH3
               \____/  | |
                      H2 H
   

Capsaicin and Di-hydrocapsaicin together make up 80-90% of the Capsaicinoids found in Chile peppers. In the Capsicum annum species, the total Capsaicinoid content ranges from 0.1 to 1.0%, and the Capsaicin to Dihydrocapsaicin ratio is about 1:1. In Capsicum frutescens the total content ranges from 0.4-1.0% with the ratio around 2:1.

The minor Capsaicinoids include Nordihydrocapsaicin [Dihydrocapsaicin with a (CH2)5 instead of (CH2)6], Homocapsaicin [Capsaicin with a (CH2)5 instead of (CH2)4, and Homodihydrocapsaicin [Dihydrocapsaicin with a (CH2)7 instead of (CH2)6].

The different capsaicin-like compounds found in Chiles have slight structural variations in the hydrocarbon tail, changing their ability to bind to the nerve receptors and their ability to penetrate layers of receptors on the tongue, mouth, and throat. This may explain why some Chiles burn in the mouth, while others burn deep in the throat.

Capsaicinoids are not soluble in water, but very soluble in fats, oils and alcohol. This is why drinking water after accepting a dare to eat an extra hot Habanero Chile won't stop the burning. Downing a cold beer is the traditional remedy, but the small percentage of alcohol will not wash away much capsaicin. To get some relief from a chile burn (can't think of a good reason not to "Enjoy the heat"), drink milk or eat ice-cream. Milk contains casein, a lipophilic (fat-loving) substance that surrounds and washes away the fatty capsaicin molecules in much the same way that soap washes away grease.

The perception that peppers are "hot" is not an accident. The capsaicin key opens a door in the cell membrane that allows calcium ions to flood into the cell. That ultimately triggers a pain signal that is transmitted to the next cell. When the cells are exposed to heat, the same events occur. Chile burns and heat burns are similar at the molecular, cellular, and sensory levels.

Paradoxically, capsaicin's ability to cause pain makes it useful in alleviating pain. Exposure to capsaicin lowers sensitivity to pain, and it is applied as a counter irritant in the treatment of arthritis and other chronically painful conditions.

The capsaicinoids are unique compared to other spicy substances, such as piperine (black pepper) and gingerol (ginger) in that capsaicin causes a long-lasting selective desensitization to the pain and discomfort, as a result of repeated doses. The result is an increasing ability to tolerate ever hotter foods and permits one to assume the title of "Chile-Head" or "CH" for short.

People that eat lots of spicy capsaicin-rich foods build up a tolerance to it. The incentive: Once a person has become somewhat desensitized to the extreme heat of the "hotter" Chiles, he or she can starts on a new culinary journey. Not being over powered by the heat factor, the palate now has the ability to explore the many diverse flavors offered by the myriad of different Chiles that are currently available from around the world. Also for some Chile-Heads a good jolt of capsaicin excites the nervous system into producing endorphins, which promote a pleasant sense of well-being that can last several hours. The endorphin lift or "high", makes spicy foods mildly addictive and for some, an obsession.

I offer the below information and pictures for folks that are really into the science of Chiles.

Date: Mon, 26 Feb 2001
Uncle Steve,

Here are the images as promised. I included structures of some of the minor capsaicinoids as well.

There are two versions (a and b) of each structure, corresponding to different conventions of drawing. They're equally correct and unequivocal, and you're free to choose whichever version you prefer. The 'a' convention is most commonly used by chemists, but the 'b' convention might be a bit easier to understand for non-chemists.
Best regards,
John Henninge

 
Capsaicin-a
Capsaicin a
Capsaicin-b
Capsaicin b




Dihydrocapsaicin-a
Dihydrocapsaicin a
Dihydrocapsaicin-b
Dihydrocapsaicin b




Homocapsaicin-a
Homocapsaicin a
Homocapsaicin-b
Homocapsaicin b




Homodihydrocapsaicin-a
Homodihydrocapsaicin a
Homodihydrocapsaicin-b
Homodihydrocapsaicin b




Nordihydrocapsaicin-a
Nordihydrocapsaicin a
Nordihydrocapsaicin-b
Nordihydrocapsaicin b

Last but not least (Just in case you want to know all about Capsaicinoids)

Melting point: 65 ° C
Boiling point: 210-220 ° C at 0.01 torr pressure
Sorce: The Merck Index. 12th Edition. Merck & Co., Inc. Whitehouse Station, NJ. 1996.

Still need more HOT Chile Pepper information?

Check out the "Pepper History" page.
Who was Wilbur Scoville?
What is The World's Hottest Chile?
Hot Chile Pepper Medical Uses
Hot Sauce Scoville Ratting

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