A. The best way to ease the burning sensation is to drink milk, eat yogurt, ice cream or any dairy product. A substance found in dairy products known as casein, helps to disrupt the reaction. This substance which is a lipophilic phosphoprotein, acts like a detergent and literally strips capsaicin from its receptor binding site. If you get the oil on your skin you may want to rub it with rubbing alcohol first then soak in milk, this seems to alleviate the burning. If you get it in your eyes the only thing you can do is repeatedly rinse with water or saline. Be very careful when handling hot chiles, especially species like chinense where the habanero comes from there are reports of these chiles actually blistering the skin. Gloves and eye protection are recommended when handling or peeling any types of super hot chile. Also read our "Put Out The Fire" page.
A. The Scoville Organoleptic Test is a refined, systematic approach. With this method, human subjects taste a chile sample and record its heat level. Samples are then diluted until heat can no longer be detected by the taster, this dilution is called the Scoville Heat Unit, named for the man who invented it, Wilbur Scoville. A more technologically advanced test is an HPLC test, or High Performance Liquid Chromatography. An HPLC 'sees' the heat compounds and records the amount in parts per million (ppm). A quick conversion from HPLC to Scoville is to multiply the ppm by 15 to get the Scoville Heat Unit.
A. There are absolutely no varieties of peppers that are poisonous, all capsicum species are edible. Some of the ornamental varieties just don't taste very good, while others are extremely hot or pungent which may lead to this misconception. However there is an ornamental plant called a False Jerusalem Cherry, botanical name, Solanum Capsicastrum, this plant is poisonous and is not intended for consumption, it is not a chile plant only a relative.
A. As chiles ripen the pods become more firm, a gentle squeeze of the pod is the best method to test. If the pod is firm with a slight crackling sound when you squeeze it should be quite close.
A. It really depends on what variety you are wanting to dry. New Mexican varieties dry well in the form of ristras, hung in the sun or laid out in the sun. Other thick walled pods of different varieties like Jalapeno, are smoked to preserve them, because the thick walls hold so much more moisture and are very hard to sun dry or even dry with dehydrators. Also depending on whether they are partially dried on the plant or harvested while still succulent, moisture must be reduced to about 10-11% for proper storage. Large processors are now using dehydrators to dry pods, temperatures for dehydrators range from 140-150 F.
A. All pepper plants are perennials if the conditions are favorable (no frost or freezing temperatures). Southern California and Florida (here in the continental U.S.), are probably the only places where you can grow peppers as perennials.
A. We believe that chiles produce pungency to protect the fruits from being eaten by mammals. Capsaicinoids, the compounds that cause the burning sensation, are the only alkaloid chile produces. Birds, the natural dispersal agent of chiles, can not feel the heat and thus disseminate the seeds. However, when mammals eat chiles the seeds are destroyed in the digestive tract.
A. Capsaicinoids are located on the membranes of chile or in the placental tissue which holds the seeds, although many people believe the seeds to be the hottest, seeds do not produce any capsaicin but do absorb some from the placental tissues during processing but do not absorb hardly any in fresh pods.
A. Yes, after roasting and peeling you will be able to freeze them in air tight containers for up to 6 months.
A. Around 1888 Fabian Garcia, a horticulturist at the New Mexico College of Agriculture and Mechanical Arts (NMSU today) began his first experiments on breeding a more standardized New Mexican chile. In 1896, Emilio Ortega (at the time sheriff of Ventura County, CA), after visiting southern New Mexico, brought back chile seeds and planted them near Anaheim, they adapted well to the soil and climate and this New Mexican chile adopted the name of Anaheim. This name has stuck with this particular pod type for many, many years. In 1907 Fabian Garcia, was finally able to release his first standardized New Mexican pod type, after experimenting with many strains of pasilla, Colorado, and negro chiles, he released New Mexico No. 9, this the granddaddy of all future standard New Mexico pod types, became the standard New Mexican chile up until 1950 after other chile breeding. In 1987, Anaheim became a variety under the New Mexican pod type category.
Q. I have a small chile garden and have noticed that many of the Jalapeno chiles get black or dark areas on them as they near maturity. Other than these spots, the chiles seem fine. Can you explain what these are? Is there anything I can do to prevent?
A. This purpling or blackening is due to direct sunlight, and can be avoided by producing a bushier canopy that shades the pods.
A. The four main causes of flower drop are night temperatures exceeding 80 F or below 65 F, excessive Nitrogen, or lack of pollination. Changing any one of these factors or pollinating by hand would be the best answers to this problem.
A. There are a few different methods, drying, freezing, canning, or smoking. Large, thick fleshed fruits are best canned or smoked (Jalapeno). New Mexican pod types can be dried, roasted and frozen or canned. Habaneros are best dried or canned or smoked. See Fiery Foods and Barbecue Business Magazine issue 21 Fall 2001, contact Home Economist Martha Archuleta at NMSU (505-646-3516), your local State Home Economist or refer back to The Chile Pepper Institutes publication list.
A. There has been a correlation between eating hot chiles over long periods of time and building a sort of 'resistance' to the heat, something like - where a person can actually eat hotter and hotter chiles over time.
A. Yes, there are many, Capsaicin D, and Heat are just a couple of them.
A. Usually a smoked Jalapenso, or other thick meated varieties of chiles that have been smoked to preserve them.
A. Some do, others do not. Fish and birds do not have the pain receptors, like mammals, do that 'feel' the heat. Many species of fish, like koi and other colorful fish, are feed food with chile in it to keep their colors bright.